Resources and References
THE SCIENCE OF LEARNING TO LEARN
For a short introduction to the power of knowledge in learning, see this article by Dan Willingham. For a richer take on the same idea, see Dan's wonderful book, Why Students Don't Like School.
While the quality of tutoring varies , high-quality tutoring programs have demonstrated tremendous results. Indeed, there is even a fair amount of evidence that even minimally trained tutors can help students learn. One study found that just community volunteer tutors positively impacted student grades. In short: If you're really struggling, get a tutor, even if they don't really know their subject.
If you want to want see Bror Saxberg discuss his experience as a doctor--and its implications for learning--see his Ted talk here.
I quoted from Daniel T. Willingham, "How Knowledge Helps: It Speeds and Strengthens Reading Comprehension, Learning-and Thinking," American Educator 30, no. 1 (2006): 30. Also see Daisy Christodoulou, Seven Myths about Education (Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2014).
For the material science text, I quoted from Betrabet, Hemant S., Otmar H. Boser, Robert H. Kane, Susan McGee, and Thomas Caulfield, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Dispersion Strengthened Lead-Tin Alloy Solder, November 19,1991. And yes, I quoted from a paper from my father: It was an "easter egg," at least for him.
When it comes to speed reading, see Jeffrey M. Zacks,, and Rebecca Treiman. “Sorry, You Can’t Speed Read,” The New York Times, April 15, 2016, (accessed September 30, 2016). I'm also indebted to Robert Pondiscio for the point reading and knowledge.
With regard to advanced organizers, I relied on Robert J. Marzano, The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction., 1st ed. (Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, 2007) and Marzano, Robert J., Debra Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock, Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, 2001).
For the details on steak, I relied on Natalie Hardwick, “How to Cook the Perfect Steak,” BBC Good Food , September 14, 2016.
For the section on organizing knowledge, I relied on Arthur C. Graesser and Brent A. Olde, "How Does One Know Whether a Person Understands a Device? The Quality of the Questions the Person Asks when the Device Breaks Down," Journal of Educational Psychology 95, no. 3 (2003): 524. Also see LSAT, “Using Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Logical Reasoning,” Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, (San Francisco, CA, 2013).